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Key Concepts In Fiscal Diagnostics – IMPRI Impact And Policy Research Institute

Key Concepts in Fiscal Diagnostics

Session Report
Mansi Garg


The session titled “Key Concepts in Fiscal Diagnostics,” featuring Prof. Mukul Asher, a Visiting Distinguished Professor at IMPRI and a former Professor at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, provided valuable insights into the complex world of fiscal diagnosis. Prof. Asher’s presentation highlighted the critical role of fiscal management in India and how it is comparable to the diagnostic process in the field of medicine. The session began by discussing the implications of India’s ambition to make the rupee a global currency, emphasizing the significant fiscal implications this move would entail.

Fiscal Diagnostics

Drawing a parallel between fiscal diagnostics and medical diagnoses, Prof. Asher emphasized the need to identify and address key issues within India’s financial system. He highlighted the importance of effective fiscal management at various levels of the Indian government.

Integrated Framework for Fiscal Space

To delve deeper into fiscal diagnostics, Prof. Asher introduced an integrated framework designed to generate fiscal space. This framework encompassed several key components, including:

1. Enhancing Economic Growth: Prof. Asher emphasized that economic growth is the cornerstone of fiscal health. Strategies for achieving this growth were discussed in detail.

2. Tax Base Broadening: The need to broaden the tax base and increase the reporting of income was addressed as a significant factor in fiscal diagnostics.

3. Non-Conventional Revenue Sources: Leveraging unconventional revenue sources, such as government balance sheets and public sector enterprise reform, was identified as a crucial element.

4. Better Expenditure Management: The session emphasized the importance of efficient procurement and expenditure management for fiscal health.

Real-Life Examples

Real-life examples illustrated how these strategies could lead to improved fiscal health. The “Mera Bill, Mera Haq” (My Bill, My Right) initiative was presented as a way to enhance formal inclusion in the GST tax net and improve other tax systems. Prof. Asher also highlighted the adoption of technology, such as 3D printing in construction and fast-track procurement procedures by the Indian army, as measures to reduce expenditure and improve fiscal health.

Data-Driven Approach

The session underlined the critical role of reliable data in effective fiscal diagnostics. Prof. Asher stressed the importance of evidence-based decision-making, referencing authoritative sources like the Central Board of Direct Taxes and annual publications.

Key Indicators and Fiscal Transparency

Key fiscal indicators were examined, including capital outlay for development and fiscal transparency. The need for transparency in budgeting was emphasized, along with the associated risks of off-budget borrowing by states. Greater transparency in financial transactions was suggested as a means to improve fiscal management.

Debt and Debt-to-GDP Ratio

Prof. Asher pointed out the significance of the government’s debt-to-GDP ratio and highlighted India’s need to address its government debt levels. Comparisons were made to other countries, including Japan and the USA, and state-level debt ratios were analyzed, shedding light on states that were accumulating substantial debt.

Data Utilization and Administration

The session addressed the administration and utilization of data. Prof. Asher stressed the importance of converting data into valuable information and understanding its economic context. Initiatives like India’s “JAM” (Jan Dhan, Aadhar, Mobile) trinity were discussed as tools to enhance the distribution of subsidies and benefits.

International Remittances

The session touched upon the significance of international remittances. Prof. Asher cited the substantial inward remittance to India from countries such as the USA, UAE, and the UK, highlighting how remittances serve as a vital source of economic support for India.

Local Fiscal Health

The session shifted focus to the fiscal health of local entities, including cities, towns, and rural areas. Prof. Asher underscored the importance of improving fiscal health at the local level, while also recognizing the potential for growth in smaller towns and rural regions.


In conclusion, Prof. Mukul Asher emphasized that effective fiscal diagnosis hinges on understanding and utilizing data effectively. The session offered a wealth of strategies and real-life examples to enhance fiscal health across various levels of government and foster economic growth. Session on “Key Concepts in Fiscal Diagnostics” was a compelling exploration of the intricacies of fiscal management in India. Drawing parallels between fiscal diagnosis and medical diagnoses, Prof. Asher provided a fresh perspective on the critical role of effective fiscal management across various levels of the Indian government.

The integrated framework for fiscal space presented by Prof. Asher outlined key components such as economic growth, tax base broadening, non-conventional revenue sources, and better expenditure management. These components form a comprehensive strategy for enhancing fiscal health and sustainability.

Real-life examples illustrated the practical application of these strategies, from initiatives like “Mera Bill, Mera Haq” to the adoption of technology, showcasing how innovation can reduce expenditure and boost fiscal health.

The emphasis on a data-driven approach underscored the significance of reliable data and evidence-based decision-making, highlighting authoritative sources like the Central Board of Direct Taxes as essential references.

Examining key fiscal indicators and fiscal transparency raised awareness about the importance of transparent budgeting and managing off-budget state borrowing risks. Prof. Asher’s insights into India’s government debt levels, compared to other nations, shed light on areas requiring attention.

Shifting the perspective to local fiscal health, Prof. Asher acknowledged the untapped growth potential in smaller towns and rural areas while emphasizing the need for fiscal empowerment at the grassroots level.

Question and Answer Session

Following the presentation, participants engaged in a question and answer session, further enriching the discussion. Prof. Asher provided valuable insights and responses to queries related to data utilization, the implications of outdated data, and other fiscal matters.

The session not only highlighted the importance of fiscal diagnostics but also underscored the significance of data in driving informed fiscal management. With practical examples and expert insights, the attendees gained a deeper understanding of the complex fiscal landscape in India and the path to fiscal wellness.

Acknowledgement: Mansi Garg is a research intern at IMPRI.

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